This week in technology history 16 September – 22 September 2017

22 September

1986 – In NEC Corp. Vs. Intel Corp., the US District Court for the Northern District of California ruled that micro programs are copyrightable literary works. And so all the trouble began.

1955 – The first commercial television broadcasting began in Britain by ITV (Independent Television). Rediffusion, serving the London area was the first on the air. TV sets sprouted extra boxes, with a rotary tuner for the new “Band Three” – higher frequency transmissions.

1851 – The first time train dispatching by telegraph in the U.S. took place when superintendent Charles Minot, of the Erie Railroad telegraphed 14 miles to Goshen, N.Y., to delay a train so that his train would not have to wait. Within weeks, all Erie trains were controlled by the telegraphed orders of a train dispatcher. Until that time the timetable was the sole authority for moving trains on the line.

21 September

2003 – The U.S. NASA Galileo space probe ended its eight-year mission to Jupiter as planned. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California directed the craft into Jupiter’s atmosphere to burn up, totally vaporizing its structure. This prevented the possibility of any later uncontrolled fall onto a moon causing contamination with bacterial life from Earth, perhaps carried on the probe since launch.

1895 – The Duryea Motor Wagon Company became the first American auto manufacturer to open for business. In 1893, Frank Duryea and his brother, Charles, designed what is believed to be the first gasoline-powered automobile built in the U.S. Since it didn’t need a horse, it was called a “horseless carriage,”

1875 – Inventor and scientist, Professor Thaddeus S.C. Lowe (1832-1913) patented a process for water gas production of “illuminating or heating gas.” This gas making process fundamentally consists of the spraying of oil into water gas (blue gas) in a hot vessel for the purpose of increasing the calorific value of the gas.

20 September

1983 – A patent for the RSA Algorithm for public-key cryptography was awarded. RSA stands for Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, who first publicly described it in 1977.

1954 – John Backus and his team at IBM ran the first FORTRAN program. FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslation and was the first high-level language and compiler developed
1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase published a report confirming DNA holds hereditary data. Their experiment used the T2 bacteriophage, which, like other viruses, is just a crystal of DNA and protein. Their results indicated that the viral DNA, not the protein, is its genetic code material.

1848 – At noon in the library of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, members of the former Association of American Geologists and Naturalists met to create the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

19 September

1994 – The U.S. DNA Identification Act was signed into law by President Clinton, as part of comprehensive federal crime legislation. Although it authorized the FBI director to establish a national DNA database, the system did not become operational until 1998. The Combined DNA Identification System (acronym CODIS) was designed to enable the states to pool the crime-investigation resources of the separate DNA databases held locally within each state.

1989 – About 100 hospitals that used software from Shared Medical Systems saw their computers go into a loop when the date was entered. The day was 32,768 days from January 1, 1900, which caused a system overflow.

1783, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier launched a duck, a sheep and a rooster aboard a hot-air balloon at Versailles in France.

18 September

1998 – The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers aka ICANN was created in order to take over Internet administrative tasks from the US Government. The most famous of those tasks is overseeing the Domain Name System.

1927 – The Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System went on the air with 47 radio stations. Within two years it would be sold and become the Columbia Broadcasting System and later simply CBS.

1830 – America’s first native locomotive, the “Tom Thumb” lost a race to a draft horse at Ellicotts Mills, Maryland.

17 September

1991 – The first version of the Linux kernel (0.01) was posted to a Finnish FTP server in Helsinki. Originator Linus Torvalds wanted to call the OS FreaX, but the FTP admin didn’t like the name and renamed it Linux.

1931 – Very early versions of 33 rpm long-playing records were first demonstrated at the Savoy Plaza Hotel in New York by RCA (Radio Corporation of America). The record players were so expensive that the product flopped. The first plastic LP records as we know them, did not come out until 1948, when RCA rival, Columbia, began mass production of the LP.

1822 – Jean-François Champollion, permanent secretary of the French Académie des Inscriptions, presented his Lettre a M. Dacier, describing his solution to the mystery of the Hieroglyphic inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone. A nifty bit of decryption.

1683 – The Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society reporting his discovery of microscopic living animalcules (live bacteria).

16 September

1959 – The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, was introduced at the Sherry-Netherland hotel in New York City. One of them caught fire. The demo that was carried live on television did not catch fire.

1908 – Former carriage-maker William Crapo “Billy” Durant founded General Motors (GM) by incorporating with a capital of $2,000 and was the man responsible for the beginning of the huge auto manufacturing company. Within 12 days the company-generated stocks amounted to $12,000,000 cash.

1890 – Louis Le Prince boarded a train to Paris at Dijon station. Neither he nor his bags ever arrived and his disappearance was never solved. In 188 he had patented a system for taking 16 pictures a second and playing them back as a moving picture.

This week in technology history 26 August – 1 September 2017

1 September

1994 – The United States Library of Congress held the first of several meetings to plan the conversion of its materials to digital form and make them accessible by computer networks.

1887 – Emile Berliner filed for a patent for his invention of the lateral-cut, flat-disk gramophone on this day. We know it better as the record player. Emile got the patent, but Thomas Edison got the fame (for making it work and making music with his American invention). Berliner’s legacy also lives on in his trademark a picture of a dog listening to “his master’s voice” issuing from a gramophone.

1869 – Cleveland Abbe began his own private weather reporting and forecasting service at Cincinnati, Ohio, issuing bulletins of his weather reports. On 9 Feb 1870, the U.S. Congress authorized a new federal weather service, under the direction of the Signal Corps. At that time, Abbe was the only person in the nation with experience in gathering telegraphic reports and using them to draw weather maps and make forecasts.

31 August

1994 – Stockholders approved the merger of Aldus Corp. and Adobe Systems
Inc. It united the two driving forces behind desktop publishing software. Aldus Pagemaker became Adobe Pagemaker.

1955 – The first solar-powered car was publicly demonstrated. It was a 15-inch Sunmobile built by William G. Cobb of the General Motors Corporation. Light energy falling on 12 selenium photoelectric cells created electric current to power a tiny electric motor that turned a driveshaft connected to the car’s rear axle by a pulley.

1910 – The first U.S. airplane flight over water was made by Glenn Hammond
Curtiss in his biplane over Lake Erie from Euclid Beach Park, Cleveland, Ohio, to Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio. At an altitude between 400 and 500 feet, the 70mile trip took 78 minutes nonstop.

1897 – Thomas Edison received a patent for the kinetographic camera, the forerunner of the motion picture film projector.

30 August

1979 – Comet Howard-Koomen-Michels (SOLWIND I) collided with the Sun, the first recorded comet to collide with Sun and the first discovered by a spacecraft. The coronagraphs were taken on 30 and 31 Aug 1979 from the satellite P78-1. That satellite was used to monitor solar corona activity that were not inspected until Sep 1981, by Russ Howard.

1963 – A direct line of communication between the leaders of the USA and USSR, dubbed “The Hotline” began operation.

1907 – John Mauchly was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He would grow up to pioneer the design and construction of ENIAC along with Presper Eckert and also contribute to the creation of BINAC and UNIVAC.

1885 – Gottlieb Daimler received a patent for adding an internal combustion engine to a bicycle to make the first gasoline-driven motorcycle.

29 August

1990 – The British Computer Misuse Act went into effect. The Act resulted from a long debate in the 1980s over failed prosecutions of hackers.

1940 – Sir Henry Tizard led a mission of leading British and Canadian scientists to the USA to brief official American representatives on devices under active development for war use and to enlist the support of American scientists. Thus began a close cooperation of Anglo-American scientists in such fields as aeronautics and rocketry.

1831 – Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, which is used in power generation and power transmission by generators, transformers, induction motors, electric motors, synchronous motors, and solenoids.

28 August

1883 – The first controlled flight in a glider was made by John J. Montgomery at Wheeler Hill, California. He sailed a distance of 603 feet at a height of about 15 feet.

1845 – Scientific American began publication with the issue for this day. It would become the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States.

1830 – “Tom Thumb,” the first locomotive built in America, ran from Baltimore to Ellicotts Mill.

27 August

2003 – Fairbanks, Alaska got the world’s biggest UPS backup. The city hooked up the world’s largest storage battery, built to provide an uninterrupted power supply of 40 megawatts.

1989 – The first direct-to-home TV satellite launched from Cape Canaveral. Marco Polo I delivered the British Satellite Broadcasting service to homes in the UK.

1962 – NASA launched the Mariner 2 unmanned space mission to Venus.

1956 – Calder Hall, England, the connection was made – so that Calder Hall became the world’s first commercial nuclear power station supplying electricity to the national electricity grid – in preparation for the official opening on 17 Oct 1956 by Queen Elizabeth II. By the time it was closed on 31 Mar 2003, it had served for nearly 47 years.

1859 – “Colonel” Edwin L. Drake drilled the first successful oil well in the United States, near Titusville, Pennsylvania. The drilling had reached 69 feet 6 inches, when a dark film floating on the water below the derrick floor was noticed.

26 August

1959 – The Morris Mini-Minor was introduced by the British Motor Corporation.
The car, popularly known as the Mini, remains successful over five decades later. It became a landmark in automotive design because it was only 10 ft long, yet seated four passengers, and one of the lowest priced cars on the market.

1938 – A New York radio station first used the Philips-Miller system of tape recording on a radio broadcast.

1873 – Lee DeForest was born. De Forest was the American inventor of the Audion vacuum tube, which made possible live radio broadcasting and became the key component of all radio, telephone, radar, television, and computer systems before the invention of the transistor in 1947. He held 300 patents.

1895 – The large-scale production of electricity using hydropower from the
Niagara Falls was commercialized. The nearby Pittsburgh Reduction Company used it for electrolytic separation of aluminum metal from its ore. Shortly after, on 15 Nov 1896, Buffalo received power for commercial use.

This week in technology history 19 August – 25 August 2017

25 August

1991 – 21-year-old Finnish student Linus Torvalds wrote a newsgroup post about a free operating system he was working on. He said it was “just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu.” His OS would eventually be called Linux.

1973 – The first scan was made using CAT (Computer Assisted Tomography).

1609 – Galileo Galilei craftily beat a Dutch telescope maker to an appointment with the Doge of Venice. Galileo impressed the Doge and received a lifetime appointment and a doubled salary. Later that autumn, Galileo pointed his telescope to the Moon, and trouble began.

24 August

1965 – Ted Nelson presented a paper called “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing and the Indeterminate” at the Association for Computing Machinery. In it he used the word “hypertext” a term he made up.

79 – The long-dormant Mount Vesuvius erupted in Italy, burying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash. An estimated 20,000 people died. When discovered, the sites became astonishing archaeological time capsules.

23 August

1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 took the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

1899 – The first ship-to-shore wireless message to be received in the U.S was: “Sherman is sighted.” U.S. Lightship No. 70, San Francisco, announced the arrival of the U.S. Army troopship Sherman to the crowd assembled at the Cliff House. Reporters there from the San Francisco Call, who relayed this information to a city awaiting the return of its hometown regiment from the battlefields of the Spanish-American War.

1852 – The first time signals were transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory in Greenwich

1617 – the first one-way streets were established in London. An Act of Common
Council was passed to regulate the “disorder and rude behaviour of Carmen, Draymen and others using Cartes.” Seventeen narrow and congested lanes were specified.

22 August

2007 – The Storm botnet sent out a record 57 million virus-infected emails. It failed to take down the Internet.

1963 – the X-15 rocket plane achieved a world record altitude of 354,200 feet (107,960 m, 67 miles) with U.S. Air Force pilot Joseph A. Walker, flight 91 of the series of test flights.

1955 – The first computer user group, SHARE was founded by users of IBM’s Model 704 computer. The first meeting was held in the basement conference room of the RAND Corporation.

1932 – The BBC began public television broadcasts.

21 August

1993 – NASA lost contact with the Mars Observer three days before it was supposed to enter orbit. As it began to pressurize fuel tanks, the spacecraft’s transmitters went silent and it was never heard from again.

1973 – Sergey Brin was born in Moscow. His family emigrated to the US in 1979. He would grow up to co-develop a search engine with Larry Page and co-found Google.

1888 – William Seward Burroughs received four patents, including one for a ‘Calculating Machine’. It would power the Burroughs Adding Machine Company.

20 August

1930 – W2XCR began broadcasting at 2.1-2.2 mHz from Jersey City, New Jersey, with the first demonstration of telecasts meant for the home. A half-hour program, hosted by the cartoonist Harry Hirschfeld, was viewed on screens placed in a store in the Hotel Ansonia, the Hearst building, and a home at 98 Riverside Drive.

1920 – The first commercial radio station, 8MK, began operating in Michigan. Now, WWJ, it is owned by CBS.

1911 – The first cable message sent around the world from the U.S. by commercial telegraph was transmitted from New York City. It read “This message sent around the world,” left the New York Times building at 7:00 pm and was received at 7:16 pm after travelling nearly 29,000 miles through 16 relays

19 August

1934 – Gordon Bell was born in Kirksville, Missouri. He would grow up to help build PDP computers and oversee the development of DEC’s VAX series.

1906 – Philo Farnsworth was born on Indian Creek in Beaver County, Utah. He would grow up to inspire the beloved professor character on Futurama. He also gets credit for inventing the first completely electronic television.

1887 – Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) used a balloon to ascend above the cloud cover to an altitude of 11,500 feet (3.5 km) to observe an eclipse in Russia.

1839 – At a crowded meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences, Louis Daguerre demonstrated the process of making photos called daguerreotypes.

This week in technology history 5 August – 11 August 2017

11 August

1950 – Steve Wozniak was born in San Jose, California. He would grow up to invent the first successful personal computer, and revolutionize desktop computing.

1942 – Hedy Markey and composer George Antheil received a US patent for a frequency-hopping device. The technique has led to many advancements in wireless technology including Wi-Fi. Markey was better known under her stage name of Hedy Lamarr.

1909 – The liner S.S. Arapahoe was the first ship to use the S.O.S. radio distress call. Its wireless operator, T. D. Haubner, radioed for help after a propeller shaft snapped while off the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA. The call was heard by the United Wireless station “HA” at Hatteras.

10 August

1990 – The Magellan space probe, named after Ferdinand Magellan, reached Venus, beginning its mission to map the planet’s surface.

1897 – Dr. Felix Hoffmann successfully created a chemically pure and stable form of acetylsalicylic acid. His handwritten laboratory notes—aspirin’s “birth certificate”—suggested: “Through its physical characteristics such as a sour taste without any corrosive effect, acetylsalicylic acid has an advantage over salicylic acid and will therefore be tested for its usability in this context.” His success was trademarked as Aspirin.

1846 – An Act of Congress signed by President James K. Polk established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust to administer the generous bequest of James Smithson, an amount over $500,000.

1675 – King Charles II laid the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. It had been created by Royal Warrant from the King on 22 Jun 1675. The building was designed by Sir Christopher Wren (who was also a Professor of Astronomy). Construction was finished the following year.

9 August

1927 – Computer pioneer Marvin Minsky was born in New York City. Minsky grew up to become a pioneer in Artificial Intelligence research and wrote the book “The Society of Mind.”

1910 – An electric washing machine was patented by Alva J. Fisher of Chicago, Illinois.

1898 – The diesel internal combustion engine was issued a U.S. patent. The inventor was Rudolf Diesel.

1803 – Robert Fulton tested his steam paddleboat in France, on the River Seine.
The project was undertaken in connection with Chancellor Livingston, the U.S. ambassador in Paris.

8 August

1929 – The German airship Graf Zeppelin began a planned 21,700-mile round-the-world flight. Lifting off in the dark, at 12:40 am, it headed west leaving Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey (to where it returned 21 days, 7 hrs and 26 mins later). Its passengers, including millionaires, scientists, writers and just one woman, were sent off with the cheers of about 15,000 onlookers.

1908 – For the first time in public, Wilbur Wright showed off the Wright Brothers’ flying machine at the racecourse in Le Mans, France. French doubts about the Wright Brothers’ claims to flight were put to rest for the time being.

1829 – The first steam locomotive for railroad use in the U.S., the Stourbridge Lion, made its first run in America. It travelled at 10 m.p.h. on the wooden tracks faced with wrought iron that already existed as a gravity railway, used to carry coal from mines at Carbondale to the canal terminus at Honesdale, Pennsylvania. The 7-ton engine was built by Foster, Rastrick & Co., of Stourbridge, England for the Hudson Railroad Company

7 August

1955 – Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering released Japan’s first commercially produced transistor radio, the TR-55, sold under the company’s new name, Sony.

1944 – IBM officially presented the Mark I computer, also known as the IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or ASCC, to Harvard. The computer produced reliable results and ran continuously.

6 August

2014 – The European Space Agency’s Rosetta probe became the first spacecraft to maneuver alongside a speeding body as it caught up with comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

1943 – Jon Postel was born in Altadena, California. He created the Internet’s address system, and administered it for 30 years as director of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

1856 – James Nasmyth spoke “On the Form of Lightning” on the opening day of the 26th Meeting of the British Association at Cheltenham. He said that he wanted to call attention to the fact that Nature never showed a zig-zag dovetail form of lightning as often portrayed by painters and in other works of art. The true natural form was irregular curved lines, single or branched.

5 August

1921 – The first radio broadcast of a baseball game happened on KDKA from Pittsburgh’s Forbes Field. Harold W. Arlin announced the game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies.

1914 – a lighting ceremony was held for the first electric traffic lights used to control flow of different streams of traffic at the intersection of Euclid Ave. and E. 105th St. in Cleveland, Ohio. The traffic signals were red and green lights on street-corner poles, wired to a manually operated switch housed inside a control booth beside the road. The switch design prevented conflicting signals. A bell warned the drivers of colour changes.

1858 – The west end of the first transatlantic cable was completed when the ship Niagara anchored at the Newfoundland coast having laid 1,016 miles of telegraph cable.

This week in technology history 22 – 28 July 2017

28 July

1866 – The use of the metric system was authorized by act of Congress as legally acceptable weights and measures in the United States, though it was not made compulsory. A century and a half later, the nation has still not converted to the metric system.

1858 – fingerprints were used as a means of identification for the first time

1851 – A total solar eclipse was first captured on a daguerreotype photograph by
Busch and Berkowski, at the Royal Observatory in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kalinigrad in Russia). It showed a slight but distinct impression of the corona during the total eclipse. Berkowski, a local daguerrotypist whose first name was never published, observed at the Royal Observatory.

27 July

1949 – The British De Havilland Comet, the world’s first jet-propelled airliner, made its maiden flight in England. Before the time of the Comet today’s speed and comfort standards did not exist.

1888 – The first U.S. electric automobile, designed by Philip W. Pratt, was demonstrated in Boston, a tricycle powered by six Electrical Accumulator Company cells, weighing 90 pounds. Pratt held a number of patents as an inventor, the most significant being the first practical automatic fire sprinkler system (1872).

1866 – Cyrus W. Field finally succeeded, after two failures, in laying the first underwater telegraph cable 1,686 miles long across the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe. Massachusetts merchant and financier Cyrus W. Field first proposed laying a 2,000-mile copper cable along the ocean bottom from Newfoundland to Ireland in 1854, but the first three attempts ended in broken cables and failure. Field’s persistence finally paid off in July 1866, when the Great Eastern, the largest ship then afloat, successfully laid the cable along the level, sandy bottom of the North Atlantic.

26 July

1989 – Cornell student Robert Tappan Morris became the first person indicted under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act after releasing a worm on the Internet. Morris claimed his worm was just measuring the size of the Internet.

25 July

1959 – A hovercraft crossed the English Channel for the first time. Having been shipped to France by tender, the world’s first all metal hovercraft, SR.N1, crossed the Channel between Calais and Dover in 2 hours 3 minutes.

1909 – French aviator Louis Blériot flew across the English Channel in a monoplane, traveling from Calais, France, to Dover, England, in 37 minutes. This was the world’s first international overseas airplane flight.

1814 – George Stephenson demonstrated the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion steam locomotive in England, the Blucher. He’d been chief engineer at Killingworth Colliery, supervising their stationary steam engines. He proposed that a steam locomotive could haul coal from the mine at less cost and replace horse-drawn wagons.

24 July

1954 – The sound of a human voice was, for the first time ever, transmitted beyond the ionosphere and returned to Earth after reflecting off the moon. James H. Trexler, an engineer in the Radio Countermeasures Branch at the Naval
Research Laboratory (NRL), spoke carefully into a microphone at the laboratory’s Stump Neck radio antenna facility in Maryland. Two and a half seconds later, his words speeded back to him at Stump Neck, after traveling 500,000 miles via an Earth-Moon circuit.

1874 – Woodward and Evans Light filed a patent for “Artificial light by means of electricity” with the Canadian Department of Agriculture. Woodward later sold the patent to Thomas Edison, who patented a different and more successful version of the incandescent lamp in the US.

1847 – Richard M. Hoe of New York City patented the rotary type printing press on this day. He created a revolution in printing by rolling a cylinder over stationary plates of inked type and using the cylinder to make an impression on paper. This eliminated the need for making impressions directly from the type plates themselves, which were heavy and difficult to maneuver.

23 July

1956 – Bell X-2 rocket plane sets world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered research aircraft used to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating, stability, and control effectiveness at high speeds and altitudes. The X-2 was carried to launch altitude by a Boeing B-50, and then released. Lt. Col. Frank “Pete” Everest piloted this ninth powered flight and reached Mach 2.87.

1877 – The first telephone and telegraph line in Hawaii was completed.

1869 – The shore end of the French-Atlantic cable via St. Pierre was landed at Duxbury, Mass.

22 July

1962 – The first Mariner space probe to Venus had to be destroyed shortly after lift-off because of “improper operation of the Atlas airborne beacon equipment.” The error was caused by a missing overbar in the software program that must have disappeared during hand transcription.

1933 – Wiley Post returned to Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York, 7 days,
18 hours, 49 minutes after leaving, becoming the fastest person to circumnavigate the Earth by air and the first to do it solo.

This week in technology history 8 – 14 July 2017

14 July

1965 – The Mariner 4 satellite sent a transmission of the first close-up photograph of Mars. It consisted of 8.3 dots per second of varying degrees of darkness. The transmission lasted for 8.5 hours

1868, Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, Connecticut recieved the first U.S. patent for a spring tape measure. The tape measure was enclosed in a circular case with a spring click lock to hold the tape at any desired point.

1867 – Alfred Nobel demonstrated dynamite for the first time at Merstham Quarry, Surrey.

13 July

1977 – Lightning struck a Consolidated Edison substation on the Hudson River, tripping two circuit breakers and setting off a chain of events that resulted in a massive power failure. The entire city of New York was blacked out.

1995 – The spacecraft Galileo released a probe towards Jupiter was to become the first Earth emissary ever to penetrate the atmosphere of any of the outer gas giants

12 July

1949 – At an IBM sales meeting, Thomas J. Watson Jr. predicted that within 10 years, electronics would replace moving parts in machines. His vision launched IBM into dominating the computer industry.

1906 – The first long-distance wireless telegraphy message across water in the southern hemisphere was transmitted 300-km across Bass Strait from Devonport, Tasmania to Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia, to demonstrate Marconi’s equipment.

1894 – Eight units for the measurement of electrical magnitudes were adopted in U.S. law when President Grover Cleveland signed an Act of Congress “to define and establish the units of electrical measure” for the ohm, ampere, volt, coulomb, farad, joule, watt and henry.

11 July

1991 – a solar eclipse cast a blanket of darkness stretching 9,000 miles from Hawaii to South America, lasting nearly seven minutes in some places. It was the so-called eclipse of the century.

1979 – The US space station Skylab returned to Earth scattering debris over the Indian Ocean and Western Australia.

1976 – K&E produced its last slide rule, which it presented to the Smithsonian Institution. While slide rules continue to be made, especially for marine and aviation uses, K&E had been the dominant manufacturer, and this signaled the end of an era, and the rise of the electronic calculator.

10 July

1990 – The Electronic Frontier Foundation was formally founded, immediately coming to the aid of Steve Jackson Games, who’s BBS had been seized by the Secret Service.

1962 – The world’s first communication satellite, Telstar, was launched into orbit from Cape Canaveral on a Delta rocket.

1856 – Nikola Tesla was born in Smiljan, Lika, Croatia, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father was a Serbian Orthodox Priest and his mother an inventor of household appliances.

9 July

1982 – Disney released the movie Tron, which used the most extensive computer-generated graphics and special effects to that time.

1971 – Marc Andreessen was born in Cedar Falls, Iowa. He would grow up to develop the Netscape browser, which powered the explosion of the Web in the late 1990s.

1941 – British cryptologists including Alan Turing broke the code used by the German army to direct ground-to-air operations on the eastern front.

8 July

1946 – The University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering began a summer school course on computing that inspired the EDSAC, BINAC, and, many other similar computers.

1908 – Charles Urban demonstrated Kinemacolor, the first successful color motion-picture process, at a scientific meeting in Paris attended by Auguste and Louis Lumière.

This week in technology history 1 – 7 July 2017

7 July

1936 – Henry F. Phillips received patents for a new kind of screw and the screwdriver used with it. Endless numbers of computer cases have been held together by it since.

1914 – Robert Goddard, age 31, was issued a U.S. patent, the first of the 214 he would obtain in his lifetime as a pioneer rocket scientist. This patent was for a “Rocket Apparatus” which described the multi-stage rocket concept.

1752 – Joseph Marie Jacquard was born in Lyon, France. The weaver and inventor created the first programmable power loom and the cards he used to program it would be adapted by Herman Hollerith and others for programming the first computers.

1668 – Isaac Newton received his M.A. from Trinity College in Cambridge England

6 July

1920 – A US Navy F5L seaplane took off from Hampton Roads, Virginia, using a radio compass for the first time. The pilots located and flew to the Battleship Ohio about 94 miles offshore.

1885 – French scientist Louis Pasteur and his colleagues injected the first of 14 daily doses of rabbit spinal cord suspensions containing progressively inactivated rabies virus into 9-year-old Joseph Meister, who had been severely bitten by a rabid dog 2 days before. The immunization was successful. This was the beginning of the modern era of immunization, which had been presaged by Edward Jenner nearly 100 years earlier.

5 July

1963 – Radio station WWVB began broadcasting standard frequencies in Fort Collins, Colorado for use by satellite and missile programs. Its time code was later used for synchronizing power plants and coordinating telephone networks and eventually for setting alarm clocks.

1954 – The BBC broadcast its first daily television news bulletin. Richard Baker read the 20-minute bulletin billed as an “Illustrated summary of the news.”

1951 – The invention of the junction transistor was announced by Dr. William Shockley in Murray Hill, N.J. This new type of transistor overcame the problems of the earlier point-contact transistor. The junction transistor was a three-layer sandwich. The outer layers were semiconductors with too many electrons (known as N-type) and the inner layer was the opposite with too few (known as Ptype).They weren’t up to the point-contact transistor’s ability to handle signals
that fluctuated extremely rapidly, but in every other way they were superior. The NPN transistors were much more efficient, used very little power to work, and they were so much quieter that they could handle weaker signals than the type-A transistors ever could.

1687 – The Principia, by Isaac Newton, was published. In this monumental work, Newton gave an insightful mathematical analysis of the relationships between force, motion and time, as in acceleration and inertial motion. He also outlined the motion of the heavenly bodies.

4 July

1956 – The five-year-old MIT computer Whirlwind added the ability to input data directly with a keyboard. Programmers began to enjoy independence from punch cards.

1883 – The first three-wire central-station incandescent-lighting plant in the U.S. started operations in Sunbury, Pennsylvania built by the Edison Electric Illuminating Co. The plant was a simple wooden structure. An Armington & Sims steam engine drove two 110-volt direct-current generators.

3 July

1903 – the first cable across the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii, Midway, Guam and Manila was completed and spliced at Manila, Philippine Islands. After testing, the first official message was sent the next day.

2 July

1940 – a U.S. patent was issued to Enrico Fermi et al., for a process of producing radioactive substances

1928 – W3XK, owned by the Jenkins Television Corporation, went on the air becoming the first television broadcasting station in the US.

1897 – 23-year-old Guglielmo Marconi received a patent in England for his wireless telegraphy which we now call radio. The Wireless Telegraph and Signal Co. Ltd. was formed a few weeks later.

1 July

1941 – A 10-second TV commercial for watch and jewelry company Bulova aired at 2:29 PM on NBC-owned WNBT, leading into a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies. It was the first legal broadcast TV commercial in the US.

1934 – The first X-ray photograph of the whole body taken in a one-second exposure, using ordinary clinical conditions such as would exist at an average hospital, was made at Rochester, N.Y. The one-piece radiograph was made by Arthur W. Fuchs of the Eastman Kodak Company.

1901 – The U.S. National Bureau of Standards became effective. It had been established under an Act of Congress approved
3 Mar 1901 that expanded the functions of the Office of Standard Weights and Measures, previously part of the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

1874 – Remington started selling the Sholes and Glidden Typewriter, the first mass-produced typewriter to use the QWERTY layout. 1 and 0 were left off as the lowercase l and upper-case O keys could double for the numbers.